top of page

Fighting for Community Animals


During my 17 years in Saudi Arabia, I established a volunteer group for the rescue of street-living non-animals in need. This group has now become a legal charity, and our primary mission is to assist injured and abandoned street-living animals. As an anthrozoologist, I've begun writing about the plight of the, primarily, cats and dogs; the witnessing of rescuers, and advocating for a shift in perception regarding ‘street-living animals.’ I aim to promote the reframing of 'street-living animals' as non-human animal neighbours worthy of respect, care and a life free of suffering.

Read More
Abandoned Cats: Text

 References Used in My Research

Abdelkarim, A. et al. (2019) ‘Flood hazard assessment of the urban area of Tabuk city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by integrating spatial-based hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling’, Sensors (Switzerland), 19(5), pp. 1024–1032. doi: 10.3390/s19051024.

Abdou, A. E. A. (2014) ‘Temperature Trend on Makkah, Saudi Arabia’, Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, pp. 457–481. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.43044.

Abdul-Rahman, M. S. (2007) Islam: Questions And Answers - Jurisprudence and Islamic Rulings. London: MSA Publication Limited.

Abokhodair, N. and Vieweg, S. (2016) ‘Privacy & Social Media in the Context of the Arab Gulf’, in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems - DIS ’16, pp. 672–683. doi: 10.1145/2901790.2901873.

Abudawood, R. (2018) ‘Stop poisoning cats and dogs! - Saudi Gazette’, Saudi Gazette, 19 January, p. np.

Abushandi, E. (2016) ‘Flash flood simulation for Tabuk City catchment, Saudi Arabia’, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 3(9), pp. 188–198. doi: 10.1007/s12517-015-2192-x.

Aguilar, G. D., Farnworth, M. J. and Winder, L. (2015) ‘Mapping the stray domestic cat (Felis catus) population in New Zealand: Species distribution modelling with a climate change scenario and implications for protected areas’, Applied Geography, 63, pp. 146–154. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.06.019.

Al-Ghamdi, F. (2019) ‘Jeddah neighborhood overflowing with litter - Saudi Gazette’, Saudi Gazette, 12 February, p. np.

Al-Sulami, M. and Fareed, A. (2017) ‘In trap: Saudi authorities catch serial cat killer at airport’, Arab News, 5 August, p. np.

Alawi, I. (2019) ‘Hot weather to continue in Jeddah, other Saudi areas - Saudi Gazette’, Saudi Gazette, 22 June, p. np.

Alexander, K. E. and Siegel, H. I. (2013) ‘Perceived hunger mediates the relationship between attachment anxiety and emotional eating’, Eating Behaviors, 14(3), pp. 374–377. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.02.005.

Algar, D. and Brazell, R. I. (2008) ‘A bait-suspension device for the control of feral cats’, Wildlife Research, 35(5), pp. 471–476. doi: 10.1071/WR07167.

Algar, D. and Burrows, N. D. (2004) ‘Feral cat control research: Western Shield review - February 2003’, Conservation Science Western Australia, 5(2), pp. 131–163.

Alger, J. M. and Alger, S. F. (2003) Cat culture : the social world of a cat shelter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Allan, G. (2003) ‘A critique of using grounded theory as a research method’, Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 2(1), pp. 1–77.

Almazroui, M. et al. (2014) ‘Trends of temperature extremes in Saudi Arabia’, International Journal of Climatology, 34(3), pp. 808–826. doi: 10.1002/joc.3722.

Alqahtani, S. (2016) Cyber Crimes Committed by Social Media Users in KSA | Al Tamimi & Company. Available at: (Accessed: 18 January 2019).

Alsarmi, S. H. and Washington, R. (2014) ‘Changes in climate extremes in the Arabian Peninsula: Analysis of daily data’, International Journal of Climatology, 34(5), pp. 1329–1345. doi: 10.1002/joc.3772.

Alworth, L. C. and Buerkle, S. C. (2013) ‘The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare’, Lab Animal, 42(2), pp. 54–61. doi: 10.1038/laban.162.

Ameur, F. (2016) ‘Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Unusual Phenomenon and Huge Losses. What Prognoses’, E3S Web of Conferences. Edited by M. Lang, F. Klijn, and P. Samuels, 7, pp. 04019–04029. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20160704019.

Anderson, K. A. et al. (2013) ‘Euthanasia in animal shelters: Management’s perspective on staffreactions and support programs’, Anthrozoos, 26(4), pp. 569–578. doi: 10.2752/175303713X13795775536057.

Anjum, M. et al. (2016) ‘Solid waste management in Saudi Arabia: A review’, Journal of Applied Agriculture and Biotechnology, 1(1), pp. 13–26.

Arab News (2016a) ‘10 Saudi cities shiver as mercury dips further’, Arab News, 2 February, p. np.

Arab News (2016b) ‘4-month school vacation begins’, Arab News, 29 May, p. np.

Arab News (2016c) ‘Garbage upsets tourists’, Arab News, 11 July, p. np.

Al Arabiya (2017) Extreme cold weather predicted in parts of Saudi Arabia this week - Al Arabiya English, Gulf News. Available at: (Accessed: 8 September 2019).

Al Arabiya (2019) Saudi Arabia’s social media taken by surprise after lifting of guardianship laws - Al Arabiya English. Available at: (Accessed: 29 August 2019).

Arif Saeed, M. (2015) Cyber security and data privacy law in Saudi Arabia — Financier Worldwide, Financier Worlwide. Available at: (Accessed: 10 January 2019).

Arkow, P. S. and S., D. (1994) ‘The ties that do not bind: A study of the human-animal bonds that fail’, in Hart, B. L. and Hart, L. A. (eds) The Pet connection. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 348–354.

Arluke, A. and Sanders, C. (2010) Regarding animals, Regarding Animals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Ascione, F. R. (1999) ‘The abuse of animals and human interpersonal violence: Making the connection’, in Arkow, P. and Ascione, F. R. (eds) Child abuse, domestic violence, and animal abuse: Linking the circles of compassion for prevention and intervention. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, pp. 50–62.

Ascione, F. R. et al. (2007) ‘Battered Pets and Domestic Violence Animal Abuse Reported by Women Experiencing Intimate Violence and by Nonabused Women’, Violence Against Women, 13(4), pp. 354–373. doi: 10.1177/1077801207299201.

Ash, S. et al. (2003) ‘Public preferences for free-ranging domestic cat (Felis catus) management options’, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31(2), pp. 334–339. doi: 10.2307/3784311.

ASPCA (no date) Feline-ality | ASPCApro, ASPCA Professional. Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019).

Baig, M. B. et al. (2018) ‘Food waste posing a serious threat to sustainability in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – A systematic review’, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, June 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.06.004.

Baker, L. M., O’Brien, K. M. and Salahuddin, N. M. (2007) ‘Are shelter workers burned out?: An examination of stress, social support, and coping’, Journal of Family Violence, 22(6), pp. 465–474. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9103-1.

Balsamo, D. et al. (2019) Inside the Echo Chamber: Disentangling network dynamics from polarization, physics.soc-ph. [Preprint] Available from Available at: (Accessed: 10 September 2019).

Barker, C. (2003) Cultural studies : theory and practice. 2nd edn. SAGE Publications.

Barker, C. (2005) Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. 2nd edn. London: Sage Publications.

Batson, A. (2008) ‘Global Companion Animal Ownership and Trade Project Summary’, WSPA. [Accessed 15 July 2019], pp. 1–47.

Bear, C. (2011) ‘Being Angelica? Exploring Individual Animal Geographies [in] Area’, Area, 43(3), pp. 297–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2011.01019.x.

Bekoff, M. (2008) The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy--and why They Matter. Novato, CA: New World Library.

Bekoff, M. (2015) Psychological Disorders in Animals: A Review of What We Know, Psychology Today. Available at: (Accessed: 20 July 2017).

Bloomer, J. P. and Bester, M. N. (1992) ‘Control of feral cats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Indian Ocean’, Biological Conservation, 60(3), pp. 211–219. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(92)91253-O.

Blustein, J. (2008) The Moral Demands of Memory. Leiden: Cambridge University Press.

Brambell, F. W. R. (1965) Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire Into the Welfare of Animals Kept Under Intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems, Fisheries (Bethesda). H.M.S.O.

Burkholder, W. J. (2000) ‘Dietary considerations for dogs and cats with renal disease’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. American Veterinary Medical Association, 216(11), pp. 1730–1734. doi: 10.2460/javma.2000.216.1730.

Camarena, C. G. (2014) ‘Biopolitics’, in Teo, T. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology. New York, NY: Springer New York, pp. 164–167. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_27.

Campbell, F. E. and Kittleson, M. D. (2007) ‘The Effect of Hydration Status on the Echocardiographic Measurements of Normal Cats’, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111), 21(5), pp. 1008–1015. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.tb03057.x.

Casey, R. A. et al. (2009) ‘Reasons for Relinquishment and Return of Domestic Cats ( Felis Silvestris Catus ) to Rescue Shelters in the UK’, Anthrozoös. Routledge, 22(4), pp. 347–358. doi: 10.2752/089279309X12538695316185.

Chrulew, M. (2017) ‘Animals as biopolitical subjects’, in Chrulew, M. and Wadiwel, D. J. (eds) Foucault and Animals Human-Animal Studies, Volume: 18. Leiden ; Boston: Brill, pp. 222–238. doi: 10.1163/9789004332232_011.

Chua, D., Rand, J. and Morton, J. (2017) ‘Surrendered and Stray Dogs in Australia-Estimation of Numbers Entering Municipal Pounds, Shelters and Rescue Groups and Their Outcomes.’, Animals : an open access journal from MDPI. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Published online 2017 Jul 12, 7(7), p. 50. doi: 10.3390/ani7070050.

Clancy, E. A., Moore, A. S. and Bertone, E. R. (2003) ‘Evaluation of cat and owner characteristics and their relationships to outdoor access of owned cats’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 222(11), pp. 1541–1545. doi: 10.2460/javma.2003.222.1541.

Cochrane, A. (2014) ‘Born in Chains? The Ethics of Animal Domestication’, in Gruen, L. (ed.) The Ethics of Captivity. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 156–173.

Coe, J. B. et al. (2014) ‘A Scoping Review of Published Research on the Relinquishment of Companion Animals’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 17(3), pp. 253–273. doi: 10.1080/10888705.2014.899910.

Cohen, S. P. (2007) ‘Compassion Fatigue and the Veterinary Health Team’, Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice, 37(1), pp. 123–134. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.09.006.

Coppola, C. L., Enns, R. M. and Grandin, T. (2006) ‘Noise in the Animal Shelter Environment: Building Design and the Effects of Daily Noise Exposure’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 9(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0901_1.

Coppola, C. L., Grandin, T. and Enns, R. M. (2006) ‘Human interaction and cortisol: Can human contact reduce stress for shelter dogs?’, Physiology and Behavior, 87(3), pp. 537–541. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.12.001.

Cottrell, L. and Duggleby, W. (2016) ‘The good death: An integrative literature review’, Palliative and Supportive Care, 14(6), pp. 686–712. doi: 10.1017/S1478951515001285.

Dabritz, H. A. et al. (2006) ‘Outdoor fecal deposition by free-roaming cats and attitudes of cat owners and nonowners toward stray pets, wildlife, and water pollution’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229(1), pp. 74–81. doi: 10.2460/javma.229.1.74.

Dahlan, K. (2019) A call to action: Environmentalism and our collective duty as Saudi citizens - Saudi Gazette, Saudi Gazette. Available at: (Accessed: 7 July 2019).

Dao, J. (2011) More Military Dogs Show Signs of Combat Stress, The New York Times. New York. Available at: (Accessed: 1 May 2019).

Dave, N. (2014) ‘Witness: Humans, Animals, and the Politics of Becoming’, Cultural Anthropology. American Anthropological Association, 29(3), pp. 433–456. doi: 10.14506/ca29.3.01.

Dawod, G. M., Mirza, M. N. and Al-Ghamdi, K. A. (2011) ‘GIS-Based Spatial Mapping of Flash Flood Hazard in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia’, Journal of Geographic Information System, 3(3), pp. 225–231. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2011.33019.

DiGiacomo, N., Arluke, A. and Patronek, G. (1998) ‘Surrendering pets to shelters: The relinquisher’s perspective’, Anthrozoos, pp. 41–51. doi: 10.2752/089279398787000878.

Doody, O. and Bailey, M. E. (2016) ‘Setting a research question, aim and objective’, Nurse Researcher, 23(4), pp. 19–23. doi: 10.7748/nr.23.4.19.s5.

Van Dooren, T. (2014a) ‘Care’, Environmental Humanities. Duke University Press, 5(1), pp. 291–294. doi: 10.1215/22011919-3615541.

Van Dooren, T. (2014b) Flight ways : life and loss at the edge of extinction. Columbia University Press.

van Dooren, T., Kirksey, E. and Münster, U. (2016) ‘Multispecies Studies’, Environmental Humanities, 8(1), pp. 1–23. doi: 10.1215/22011919-3527695.

Downing, R. (2017) Commentary: It’s time for veterinarians to stop mutilating cats’ feet, Available at: (Accessed: 1 July 2019).

Driscoll, C. A., Macdonald, D. W. and O’Brien, S. J. (2009) ‘From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication.’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. National Academies Press (US), 106(Supplement_1), pp. 9971–9978. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901586106.

Dupré, G., Findji, L. and Oechtering, G. (2013) ‘Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome’, Small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery, 46(4), pp. 691–707. doi: 10.1002/9781118997505.ch19.

Elizondo, E. C. and Loss, S. R. (2016) ‘Using trail cameras to estimate free-ranging domestic cat abundance in urban areas’, Wildlife Biology, 22(5), pp. 246–252. doi: 10.2981/wlb.00237.

Emel Wilbert Wolch (2002) ‘Animal Geographies’, Society & Animals, 10(4), pp. 407–412. doi: 10.1163/156853002320936881.

Eriksson, P., Loberg, J. and Andersson, M. (2009) ‘A survey of cat shelters in Sweden’, Animal Welfare, 18(3), pp. 283–288. doi:

Estren (2012) ‘The Neoteny Barrier: Seeking Respect for the Non-Cute’, Journal of Animal Ethics, 2(1), pp. 6–11. doi: 10.5406/janimalethics.2.1.0006.

Farnham, S. D. and Churchill, E. F. (2011) ‘Faceted identity, faceted lives’, in Proceedings of the ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work - CSCW ’11. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, p. 359. doi: 10.1145/1958824.1958880.

Farnworth, M. J., Campbell, J. and Adams, N. J. (2011) ‘What’s in a name? Perceptions of stray and feral cat welfare and control in Aotearoa, New Zealand.’, Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS, 14(1), pp. 59–74. doi: 10.1080/10888705.2011.576988.

Fatjó, J. et al. (2015) ‘Epidemiology of Dog and Cat Abandonment in Spain (2008-2013).’, Animals : an open access journal from MDPI. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 5(2), pp. 426–41. doi: 10.3390/ani5020364.

Feral Cats | PETA (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 July 2019).

Feral Cats and the Public—A Healthy Relationship | Alley Cat Allies (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 July 2019).

Ferdowsian, H. R. et al. (2011) ‘Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees’, PLoS ONE. Edited by P. Callaerts, 6(6), p. e19855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019855.

Ferreira, J. P. et al. (2011) ‘Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation’, PLoS ONE, 6(10), p. e25970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025970.

Finka, L. R., Ellis, S. L. H. and Stavisky, J. (2014) ‘A critically appraised topic (CAT) to compare the effects of single and multi-cat housing on physiological and behavioural measures of stress in domestic cats in confined environments’, BMC Veterinary Research, 10(1), pp. 10–73. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-73.

Finkler, H. and Terkel, J. (2012) ‘The contribution of cat owners’ attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Elsevier, 104(1–2), pp. 125–135. doi: 10.1016/J.PREVETMED.2011.11.006.

Flockhart, D. T. T., Norris, D. R. and Coe, J. B. (2016) ‘Predicting free-roaming cat population densities in urban areas’, Animal Conservation, 19(5), pp. 472–483. doi: 10.1111/acv.12264.

Flynn, C. P. (1999) ‘Animal Abuse in Childhood and Later Support for Interpersonal Violence in Families’, Society & Animals, 7(2), pp. 161–172. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Flynn, C. P. (2000) ‘Woman’s best friend: Pet abuse and the role of companion animals in the lives of battered women’, Violence Against Woman, 6(2), pp. 162–177. doi: 10.1177/10778010022181778.

Foltz, R. C. (2006) Animals in Islamic tradition and Muslim cultures. Oxford: Oneworld.

Foucault, M. et al. (2008) The birth of biopolitics : lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-79. Palgrave Macmillan.

Francione, G. (2012) “Pets”: The Inherent Problems of Domestication – Animal Rights The Abolitionist Approach. Available at: (Accessed: 12 July 2019).

Frank, J. (2004) ‘An interactive model of human and companion animal dynamics: The ecology and economics of dog overpopulation and the human costs of addressing the problem’, Human Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 32(1), pp. 107–130. doi: 10.1023/B:HUEC.0000015213.66094.06.

Frommer, S. and Arluke, A. (1999) ‘Loving Them to Death-Displacing Strategies of Animal Shelter Workers and Surrenderers’, in Society and Animals, pp. 1–16. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Fukimoto, N., Howat-Rodrigues, A. B. and Mendonça-Furtado, O. (2019) ‘Modified Meet your Match® Feline-alityTM validity assessment: An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of domestic cats in a Brazilian shelter’, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 215, pp. 61–67. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2019.03.013.

Garner, R. (2004) Animals, politics, and morality. Manchester ; New York: Manchester University Press.

Gazzano, A. et al. (2015) ‘Dog attention and cooperation with the owner: Preliminary results about brachycephalic dogs’, Dog Behavior, 1, pp. 1–7. doi: 10.4454/DOGB.V1I1.001.

Gibbs, G. R. (2012) ‘Thematic Coding and Categorizing In: Analyzing Qualitative Data’, in Qualitative Research kit: Analyzing qualitative data. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd, pp. 38–55. doi: 10.4135/9781849208574.

Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. L. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory : strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine, 1967.

Gourkow, N. and Fraser, D. (2006) ‘The effect of housing and handling practices on the welfare, behaviour and selection of domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) by adopters in an animal shelter’, Animal Welfare, 15(4), pp. 371–377.

Govindrajan, R. (2018) Animal intimacies : interspecies relatedness in India’s Central Himalayas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Griffiths, H., Poulter, I. and Sibley, D. (2000) ‘Feral Cats in the City’, in Animal Spaces, Beastly Places: New Geographies of Human-animal Relations. London ; New York: Routledge, pp. 59–72.

Grimm, D. (2009) ‘A cure for Euthanasia?’, Science, 5947(325), pp. 1490–1493. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1490.

Gunther, I. et al. (2015) ‘Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 119(3–4), pp. 203–210. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.02.012.

Hale, F. (2013) ‘Stop brachycephalism, now!’, The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne. Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, 54(2), pp. 185–6.

Hanneman, G. D. et al. (1977) ‘Transient and permanent effects of hyperthermia in dogs: a study of a simulated air transport environmental stress.’, American journal of veterinary research, 38(7), pp. 955–8.

Hansen, C. M. et al. (2018) ‘Estimating feral cat (Felis catus) density in a rural to urban gradient using camera trapping’, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 45(3), pp. 213–226. doi: 10.1080/03014223.2018.1494609.

Haraway, D. (2015) ‘Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Plantationocene, Chthulucene: Making Kin’, Environmental Humanities, 6(1), pp. 159–165. doi: 10.1215/22011919-3615934.

Haraway, D. J. (2003) The companion species manifesto : dogs, people, and significant otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.

Haraway, D. J. (2008) When Species Meet (Posthumanities). Cambridge: International Society for Science and Religion. doi: 10.2752/089279308786161276.

Heaney, S. (2016) Estimating Sheltering Costs for Animals in Need in KSA. Unpublished.

Hellard, E. et al. (2011) ‘When cats’ ways of life interact with their viruses: A study in 15 natural populations of owned and unowned cats (Felis silvestris catus)’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 101(3–4), pp. 250–264. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.04.020.

Herzog, H. and Arluke, A. (2006) ‘Human-animal connections: recent findings on the anthropology of cruelty’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29(3), p. 230. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X06299059.

Holton, J. A. (2010) The Coding Process and Its Challenges, Grounded Theory Review: An International Journal. Available at: (Accessed: 2 August 2019).

Hopwood, D. (2016) The Arabian Peninsula : society and politics. London: Routledge.

Hurn, S. (2012) Humans and Other Animals: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Human-animal Interactions, Anthropology, culture, and society. London: Pluto Press.

Ingold, T. (2002) The Perception of the Environment. London ; New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203466025.

Intarapanich, N. P. et al. (2016) ‘Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61(4), pp. 993–999. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13074.

International Cat Care (no date) Severe brachycephalic in Persian and related breeds. Available at: (Accessed: 3 August 2019).

Irvine, L. (2004) ‘Pampered or enslaved? the moral dilemmas of pets’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 24(9), pp. 5–17. doi: 10.1108/01443330410790740.

Irvine, L. (2008) ‘The Power of Play’, in Flynn, C. P. (ed.) Social Creatures: A Human and Animal Studies Reader. New York: Lantern Books, pp. 117–129.

Jaroš, F. (2018) ‘Cat Cultures and Threefold Modelling of Human-Animal Interactions: on the Example of Estonian Cat Shelters’, Biosemiotics, 11(3), pp. 365–386. doi: 10.1007/s12304-018-9332-0.

Jarvis, P. J. (1990) ‘Urban Cats as Pests and Pets’, Environmental Conservation, 17(02), pp. 169–171. doi: 10.1017/S0376892900031982.

Kay, A. et al. (2017) ‘A scoping review of published research on the population dynamics and control practices of companion animals’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Elsevier, 144, pp. 40–52. doi: 10.1016/J.PREVETMED.2017.05.006.

Kirksey, S. E. and Helmreich, S. (2010) ‘The emergence of multispecies ethnography’, Cultural Anthropology, 25(4), pp. 545–576. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2010.01069.x.

Kitts-Morgan, S. E. (2015) Companion animals symposium: Sustainable ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations, Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas.2014-8557.

Knesl, O. et al. (2017) ‘Veterinarians and humane endings: When is it the right time to euthanize a companion animal?’, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 4(APR), p. 45. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00045.

Kogan, L. R. et al. (2019) ‘Veterinary Behavior: Assessment of Veterinarians’ Training, Experience, and Comfort Level with Cases’, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, Apr 22, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.3138/jvme.0318-035r1.

Kry, K. and Casey, R. (2007) ‘The effect of hiding enrichment on stress levels and behaviour of domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) in a shelter setting and the implications for adoption potential’, Animal Welfare, 16(3), pp. 375–383.

Lambert, K. et al. (2015) ‘A systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of dogs surrendered for dog-related and owner-related reasons’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Elsevier, 118(1), pp. 148–160. doi: 10.1016/J.PREVETMED.2014.11.002.

Lefebvre, D., Lips, D. and Giffroy, J. M. (2007) ‘The European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals and tail docking in dogs’, OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique, 26(3), pp. 619–628.

Lepczyk, C. A., Mertig, A. G. and Liu, J. (2004) ‘Landowners and cat predation across rural-to-urban landscapes’, Biological Conservation, 115(2), pp. 191–201. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00107-1.

Lessa, I. and Bergallo, H. (2012) ‘Modelling the population control of the domestic cat: an example from an island in Brazil’, Brazilian Journal of Biology, 72(3), pp. 445–452. doi: 10.1590/S1519-69842012000300005.

Lestel, D., Brunois, F. and Gaunet, F. (2006) ‘Etho-ethnology and ethno-ethology’, Social Science Information, 45(2), pp. 155–177. doi: 10.1177/0539018406063633.

Levers, M. J. D. (2013) ‘Philosophical paradigms, grounded theory, and perspectives on emergence’, SAGE Open. doi: 10.1177/2158244013517243.

Levy, J. K. and Crawford, P. C. (2005) ‘Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225(9), pp. 1354–1360. doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354.

Levy, J. K., Isaza, N. M. and Scott, K. C. (2014) ‘Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter’, The Veterinary Journal. W.B. Saunders, 201(3), pp. 269–274. doi: 10.1016/J.TVJL.2014.05.001.

Lindgren, N. and Öhman, J. (2018) ‘A posthuman approach to human-animal relationships: advocating critical pluralism’, Environmental Education Research. Routledge, pp. 1–16. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2018.1450848.

Linzey, A. (2008) ‘Animal Rights as Religious Vision’, in Flynn, C. P. (ed.) Social creatures : a human and animal studies reader. New York: Lantern Books, pp. 109–116.

Litster, A. (2014) ‘Operation Catnip: Working together to reduce free-roaming cat populations ethically and effectively’, Veterinary Journal, 201(3), pp. 239–240. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.05.043.

Lockwood, A. (2018) ‘Bodily Encounter, Bearing Witness and the Engaged Activism of the Global Save Movement’, Animal Studies Journal, 7(1), pp. 102–126.


Lorimer, J. (2010) ‘Elephants as companion species: The lively biogeographies of Asian elephant conservation in Sri Lanka’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 35(4), pp. 491–506. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00395.x.

Luke, C. (1996) ‘Animal shelter issues.’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 208(4), pp. 524–7.

Lynn, W. S. (1998) ‘Animal, Ethics and Geography’, in Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-culture. London ; New York: Verso.

MacCormack, J. K. and Lindquist, K. A. (2019) ‘Feeling hangry? When hunger is conceptualized as emotion.’, Emotion, 19(2), pp. 301–319. doi: 10.1037/emo0000422.

Maran, T. (2016) Animal Umwelten in a Changing world : Zoosemiotic Perspectives (Tartu Semiotics Library (Book 18)). University of Tartu Press.

Marder, A. R. and Engel, J. M. (2002) ‘Long-term outcome after treatment of feline inappropriate elimination’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 5(4), pp. 299–308. doi: 10.1207/S15327604JAWS0504_04.

Masri, Al-Hafiz, Basheer, A. (2007) Animal Welfare in Islam. 1st Kindle. Leistershire, UK; Nairobi, Kenya; Kano,Nigeria: The Islamic Foundation.

Meier, E. A. et al. (2016) ‘Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue’, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. Elsevier, 24(4), pp. 261–271. doi: 10.1016/J.JAGP.2016.01.135.

Mellema, M. S. and Hoareau, G. L. (2014) ‘Brachycephalic syndrome’, in Small Animal Critical Care Medicine, Second Edition. 2nd edn. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-4557-0306-7.00018-0.

Mellor, D. J. (2016a) ‘Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” by Updating the “Five Provisions” and Introducing Aligned “Animal Welfare Aims”’, Animals : an open access journal from MDPI. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 6(10), p. 59. doi: 10.3390/ani6100059.

Mellor, D. J. (2016b) ‘Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “A Life Worth Living”’, Animals : an open access journal from MDPI. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 6(3), p. 21. doi: 10.3390/ani6030021.

Merz-Perez, L. (2003) Animal cruelty : pathway to violence against people / Linda Merz-Perez and Kathleen M. Heide. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Mestrinho, L. A. et al. (2018) ‘Oral and dental anomalies in purebred, brachycephalic Persian and Exotic cats’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 253(1), pp. 66–72. doi: 10.2460/javma.253.1.66.

Miller, D. D. et al. (1996) ‘Factors associated with the decision to surrender a pet to an animal shelter’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(4), pp. 738–42.

Miller, L. (2007) Animal sheltering in the United States: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow, Available at: (Accessed: 23 August 2019).

Milton, K. (2005) ‘Anthropomorphism or `egomorphism? The perception of Non-human Persons by Human Ones’, in Knight, J. (ed.) Animals in person : cultural perspectives on human-animal intimacy. English ed. Oxford ;New York: Berg, pp. 275–271.

Moberg, G. P. (1985) Animal Stress, Animal Stress. Edited by G. P. Moberg. New York, NY: Springer New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7544-6.

Mohajerani, A., Bakaric, J. and Jeffrey-Bailey, T. (2017) ‘The urban heat island effect, its causes, and mitigation, with reference to the thermal properties of asphalt concrete’, Journal of Environmental Management, 197, pp. 522–538. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.03.095.

Mohamed, A. A. and Hamdy, H. (2008) ‘The Stigma of Wasta: The Effect of Wasta on Perceived Competence and Morality’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(4), pp. 412–425.

Mohan-Gibbons, H. and Weiss, E. (2015) ‘Behavior risks for relinquishment’, in Animal Behavior for Shelter Veterinarians and Staff. Ames, Iowa: Wiley Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781119421313.ch3.

Muhammad, R. W. et al. (2016) ‘The Doctrine Of Sanctity Of Life From The Islamic Perspective’, Al-Shajarah: Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). Staatl. Museen, Preuß. Kulturbesitz, 21(1).

N.A.S.A. (2005) Dust Storm in Saudi Arabia. NASA Earth Observatory. Available at: (Accessed: 22 July 2019).

Nadesan, M. H. (2014) ‘Biopower’, in Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology. New York: Springer, pp. 167–170. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_339.

Nahiduzzaman, K. M., Aldosary, A. S. and Rahman, M. T. (2015) ‘Flood induced vulnerability in strategic plan making process of Riyadh city’, Habitat International, 49, pp. 375–385. doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.05.034.

Van Neer, W. et al. (2014) ‘More evidence for cat taming at the Predynastic elite cemetery of Hierakonpolis (Upper Egypt)’, Journal of Archaeological Science, 45, pp. 103–111. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.014.

Neidhart, L. and Boyd, R. (2002) ‘Companion Animal Adoption Study’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 5(3), pp. 175–192. doi: 10.1207/S15327604JAWS0503_02.

Neisser, U. (1976) Cognition and reality : principles and implications of cognitive psychology. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.

New, J. C. et al. (2000) ‘Characteristics of Shelter-Relinquished Animals and Their Owners Compared With Animals and Their Owners in U.S. Pet-Owning Households’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 3(3), pp. 179–201. doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0303_1.

New Zealand Government (2018) Code of Welfare: Companion Cats. Available at: (Accessed: 23 July 2019).

O’Connor, T. (2017) Cat Killer Sparks Internet Craze, Police Investigation in Saudi Arabia, Newsweek. Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2019).

Ottoni, C. et al. (2017) ‘The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world’, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 7(1). doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0139.

Ottway, D. S. and Hawkins, D. M. (2003) ‘Cat housing in rescue shelters: A welfare comparison between communal and discrete-unit housing’, Animal Welfare, 12(2), pp. 173–189. doi: 10.1163/_q3_SIM_00374.

Ouda, O. K. M. et al. (2017) ‘Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia’, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 29(3), pp. 212–220. doi: 10.1016/j.jksues.2015.02.002.

Pal, J. S. and Eltahir, E. A. B. (2016) ‘Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability’, Nature Climate Change, 6(2), pp. 197–200. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2833.

Palmer, C. (1997) ‘The Idea of the Domesticated Animal Contract’, Environmental Values, 6(4), pp. 411–425. doi: 10.3197/096327197776679004.

Palmer, C. (2012) ‘The Moral Relevance of the Distinction Between Domesticated and Wild Animals’, in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195371963.013.0026.

Patronek, G. J. et al. (1996) ‘Risk factors for relinquishment of cats to an animal shelter.’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(3), pp. 585–8. doi: 10.1016/j.foar.2012.09.001.

Pavlova, E. V., Kirilyuk, V. E. and Naidenko, S. V. (2015) ‘Patterns of seroprevalence of feline viruses among domestic cats (Felis catus) and pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) in daursky reserve, Russia’, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 93(11), pp. 849–855. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2015-0006.

Phillips, S. C., Hedge, Z. and Peralta, J. M. (2018) ‘The role of private practitioners in reducing numbers of homeless dogs and cats and shelter euthanasia rates’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 253(4), pp. 404–408. doi: 10.2460/javma.253.4.404.

Philo, C. and Wilbert, C. (2000) Animal Spaces, Beastly Places. London ; New York: Routledge.

Plotnick, A. D. (2018) What You Must Know About Flat-Faced Cats (Brachycephalic Cats) - Catster. Available at: (Accessed: 4 August 2019).

Pontier, D. et al. (2009) ‘When domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) population structures interact with their viruses’, Comptes Rendus Biologies. Elsevier Masson, 332(2–3), pp. 321–328. doi: 10.1016/J.CRVI.2008.07.012.

Potter, A. and Mills, D. S. (2015) ‘Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners’, PLOS ONE. Edited by A. Senju. Public Library of Science, 10(9), p. e0135109. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135109.

Rae, M., Holman, R. and Nethery, A. (2018) ‘Self-represented witnessing: the use of social media by asylum seekers in Australia’s offshore immigration detention centres’, Media, Culture & Society. SAGE PublicationsSage UK: London, England, 40(4), pp. 479–495. doi: 10.1177/0163443717746229.

Rahman, M. T. et al. (2016) ‘Vulnerability of flash flooding in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia’, Natural Hazards, 84(3), pp. 1807–1830. doi: 10.1007/s11069-016-2521-8.

Reeve, C. L. et al. (2005) ‘The Caring-Killing Paradox: Euthanasia-Related Strain Among Animal-Shelter Workers1’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), pp. 119–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02096.x.

Ritvo, H. (1987) ‘The Emergence of Modern Pet-Keeping’, Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, 1(3), pp. 158–165. doi: 10.2752/089279388787058425.

Robertson, S. A. (2008) ‘A review of feral cat control’, Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2007.08.003.

Rohlf, V. and Bennett, P. (2005) ‘Perpetration-induced Traumatic Stress in Persons Who Euthanize Nonhuman Animals in Surgeries, Animal Shelters, and Laboratories’, Society & Animals. Brill, 13(3), pp. 201–220. doi: 10.1163/1568530054927753.

Ryan, S. et al. (2019) ‘WSAVA Animal Welfare Guidelines’, Journal of Small Animal Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111), 60(5), pp. E1–E46. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12998.

Salman, M. D. et al. (1998) ‘Human and Animal Factors Related to Relinquishment of Dogs and Cats in 12 Selected Animal Shelters in the United States’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1(3), pp. 207–226. doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0103_2.

Sandøe, P., Corr, S. and Palmer, C. (2016) Companion animal ethics. Chichester, UK ; Ames, IA: Wiley.

Saudi Arabia Social Media Statistics 2018 - Official GMI Blog (2018). Available at: (Accessed: 5 January 2019).

Scarlett, J. M. et al. (2005) ‘Reasons for Relinquishment of Companion Animals in U.S. Animal Shelters: Selected Health and Personal Issues’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2(1), pp. 41–57. doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0201_4.

Scherer, K. R. (2005) ‘What are emotions? and how can they be measured?’, Social Science Information, 44(4), pp. 695–729. doi: 10.1177/0539018405058216.

Schlueter, C. et al. (2009) ‘Brachycephalic feline noses: CT and anatomical study of the relationship between head conformation and the nasolacrimal drainage system.’, Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 11(11), pp. 891–900. doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2009.09.010.

Schmidt, L. A. (2012) ‘Social Networking and the Fourth Amendment: Location Tracking on Facebook, Twitter, and Foursquare’, Journal of Law and Public Policy, 22(2 (2012)).

Schmidt, M. J. et al. (2017) ‘The Relationship between Brachycephalic Head Features in Modern Persian Cats and Dysmorphologies of the Skull and Internal Hydrocephalus’, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 31(5), pp. 1487–1501. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14805.

Schmidt, P. M., Lopez, R. R. and Collier, B. A. (2007) ‘Survival, Fecundity, and Movements of Free-Roaming Cats’, Source: The Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(3), pp. 915–919. doi: 10.2193/2006-066.

Schwartz, S. (2002) ‘Separation anxiety syndrome in cats: 136 cases (1991-2000)’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  American Veterinary Medical Association  1931 North Meacham Road, Suite 100 Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA  , 220(7), pp. 1028–1033. doi: 10.2460/javma.2002.220.1028.

Schwartz, S. (2003) ‘Separation anxiety syndrome in dogs and cats’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. American Veterinary Medical Association, 222(11), pp. 1526–1532. doi: 10.2460/javma.2003.222.1526.

Seimenis, A. and Tabbaa, D. (2014) ‘Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions’, Veterinaria Italiana, 50(2), pp. 131–6. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.48.134.3.

Serpell, J. A. (2019) ‘How happy is your pet? The problem of subjectivity in the assessment of companion animal welfare’, Animal Welfare. doi: 10.7120/09627286.28.1.057.

Shannon, G. et al. (2013) ‘Effects of social disruption in elephants persist decades after culling’, Frontiers in Zoology, 10(1), p. 62. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-62.

Sharif, M. (2015) ‘Analysis of projected temperature changes over Saudi Arabia in the twenty-first century’, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(10), pp. 8795–8809. doi: 10.1007/s12517-015-1810-y.

Shir-Vertesh, D. (2012) ‘“Flexible Personhood”: Loving Animals as Family Members in Israel’, American Anthropologist, 114(3), pp. 420–432. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1433.2012.01443.x.

Short, J. et al. (1997) ‘Control of feral cats for nature conservation. II. Population reduction by poisoning’, Wildlife Research, 24(6), p. 703. doi: 10.1071/WR96071.

Short, J. and Turner, B. (2005) ‘Control of feral cats for nature conservation. IV. Population dynamics and morphological attributes of feral cats at Shark Bay, Western Australia’, Wildlife Research, 32(6), p. 489. doi: 10.1071/WR04102.

Slater, M. (2007) ‘The welfare of feral cats’, in Rochlitz, I. (ed.) The welfare of cats (AWNS, volume 3), pp. 141–175. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3227-1.

Spencer, L. (1993) ‘Behavioral services in a practice lead to quality relationships.’, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 203(7), pp. 940–1.

Srinivasan, K. (2013) ‘The biopolitics of animal being and welfare: Dog control and care in the UK and India’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 38(1), pp. 106–119. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2012.00501.x.

Stanescu, J. (2013) ‘Beyond Biopolitics: Animal Studies, Factory Farms, and the Advent of Deading Life’, PhaenEx, 8(2), p. 135. doi: 10.22329/p.v8i2.4090.

Stanger, N., Alnaghaimshi, N. and Pearson, E. (2017) ‘How do Saudi youth engage with social media?’, First Monday, 22(5). doi: 10.5210/fm.v22i5.7102.

Steel, J. L. et al. (2011) ‘Measuring depression and PTSD after trauma: common scales and checklists.’, Injury. NIH Public Access, 42(3), pp. 288–300. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2010.11.045.

Stella, J. L. and Croney, C. C. (2016) ‘Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare’, Scientific World Journal, p. 6296315. doi: 10.1155/2016/6296315.

Steward, H. (2009) ‘Animal agency’, Inquiry, 52(3), pp. 217–231. doi: 10.1080/00201740902917119.

Stojanović, N. (2011) ‘Legal Protection Of Abandoned Animals Under The Animal Welfare Act’, Facta Universitatis; Series: Law and Politics, 9(2), pp. 145–157.

Stoskopf, M. K. and Nutter, F. B. (2004) ‘Analyzing approaches to feral cat management-one size does not fit all’, in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, pp. 1361–1364. doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.225.1361.

Surah Al-An’am [6:38] - Al-Qur’an al-Kareem (no date) Al-Qur’an al-Kareem. Available at:,101,84,21,18,95,17 (Accessed: 26 August 2019).

Swart, J. A. A. and Keulartz, J. (2011) ‘Wild animals in our backyard. A contextual approach to the intrinsic value of animals.’, Acta biotheoretica. Springer, 59(2), pp. 185–200. doi: 10.1007/s10441-011-9126-0.

Tabuk Paws (2019) Tabuk Paws Report – Adoption Application Report. Tabuk, Unpublished.

Taylor, J. and Pagliari, C. (2018) ‘Mining social media data: How are research sponsors and researchers addressing the ethical challenges?’, Research Ethics. SAGE PublicationsSage UK: London, England, 14(2), pp. 1–39. doi: 10.1177/1747016117738559.

The Cambridge Analytica Files | The Guardian (no date) The Guardian. Available at: (Accessed: 30 July 2019).

The Great Hack | Netflix Official Site (2019).

The University of Sheffield (2018) Research involving social media data. Available at: (Accessed: 15 January 2019).

Tlili, S. (2018) ‘Animal ethics in islam: A review article’, Religions, 9(9), p. 269. doi: 10.3390/rel9090269.

Tønnessen, M. (2009) ‘Umwelt transitions: Uexküll and environmental change’, Biosemiotics, 2(1), pp. 47–64. doi: 10.1007/s12304-008-9036-y.

Toumi, H. (2017) Jeddah floods blamed on poor urban planning, Gulf News. Available at: (Accessed: 1 September 2019).

Tsing, A. (2012) ‘Unruly Edges: Mushrooms as Companion Species’, Environmental Humanities. Duke University Press, 1(1), pp. 141–154. doi: 10.1215/22011919-3610012.

Tuan, Y. (1984a) ‘Animal pets: Cruelty and affection’, in The animals reader: The essential classic and contemporary writings. Newhaven: Yale University Press, pp. 141–153.

Tuan, Y. (1984b) Dominance & affection : the making of pets. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

Turner, D. C. and Rieger, G. (2001) ‘Singly living people and their cats: A study of human mood and subsequent behavior’, Anthrozoos, 14(1), pp. 38–46. doi: 10.2752/089279301786999652.

Tynes, V. V (2014) ‘The physiologic effects of fear’, Veterinary Medicine, 109(8).

Uexküll, J. von (2010) A Foray into the worlds of animals and humans : with A theory of meaning. Translated by J. D. O’Neil. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Venable, E. et al. (2016) ‘Effects of Air Travel Stress on the Canine Microbiome: A Pilot Study’, International Journal of Veterinary Health Science & Research, pp. 132–139. doi: 10.19070/2332-2748-1600028.

Vigne, J. D. et al. (2004) ‘Early taming of the cat in Cyprus.’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5668), p. 259. doi: 10.1126/science.1095335.

Voith, V. L. and Borchelt, P. L. (1996) ‘Social Behaviour of Domestic Cats’, in Voith, V. L. and Borchelt, P. L. (eds) Readings in companion animal behavior. Trenton, N.J.: Veterinary Learning Systems Co. Inc., pp. 248–56.

Wassink-van der Schot, A. A. et al. (2016) ‘Risk factors for behavior problems in cats presented to an Australian companion animal behavior clinic’, Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 4, pp. 34–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.06.010.

Webster, J. (2016) ‘Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and "A Life Worth Living".’, Animals : an open access journal from MDPI. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute  (MDPI), 6(6). doi: 10.3390/ani6060035.

Weiss, E. et al. (2015) ‘Goodbye to a Good Friend: An Exploration of the Re-Homing of Cats and Dogs in the U.S.’, Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 5(4), pp. 435–456. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54046.

Weng, H. Y. and Hart, L. A. (2012) ‘Impact of the Economic Recession on Companion Animal Relinquishment, Adoption, and Euthanasia: A Chicago Animal Shelter’s Experience’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 15(1), pp. 80–90. doi: 10.1080/10888705.2012.624908.

Williams, J. B. et al. (2012) ‘Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia’, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 19(2), pp. 121–130. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.12.004.

Wolch, J. and Emel, J. (1995) ‘Guest editorial: Bringing the animals back in’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(6), pp. 632–636. doi: 10.1080/07373939508902371.

Wright, A. et al. (2007) ‘Anthropogenic Noise as a Stressor in Animals: A Multidisciplinary Perspective’, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, pp. 250–273.

Yenkosky, J. P., Bradshaw, G. A. and McCarthy, E. (2010) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among Parrots in Captivity: Treatment Considerations, 2010 Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV) Annual Conference & Expo with the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV). San Diego, California, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2017).

Youssef, A. M. et al. (2016) ‘Analysis on causes of flash flood in Jeddah city (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) of 2009 and 2011 using multi-sensor remote sensing data and GIS’, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 7(3), pp. 1018–1042. doi: 10.1080/19475705.2015.1012750.

Zawistowski, S. et al. (1998) ‘Population Dynamics, Overpopulation, and the Welfare of Companion Animals: New Insights on Old and New Data’, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1(3), pp. 193–206. doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0103_1.

Zawistowski, S. (2008) Companion animals in society. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.

Zeder, M. A. (2012) ‘Pathways to Animal Domestication’, in P. Gepts, T. Famula, R. Bettinger, S. Brush, A. Damania, P. McGuire,  et al. (ed.) Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution and Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 227–259. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139019514.013.

bottom of page